Contents

A Digital Tutorial For Ancient Greek Based on White's First Greek Book
Created by Jeff Rydberg-Cox (Classical and Ancient Studies Program, University of Missouri-Kansas City)
Lesson
X: Future and First Aorist Indicative Active.

LESSON 10: Future and First Aorist Indicative Active.

The Future and the First Aorist Indicative Active.

87. The aorist indicative expresses the simple occurrence of an action in past time; the imperfect (68) expresses its continuance.

The future indicative expresses the occurrence of an action in future time.

86. PARADIGMS.

Future Active Indicative of λύω
First Person SingularλύσωI shall loose
Second Person Singularλύσειςyou will loose
Third Person Singularλύσειhe will loose
Second Person Dualλύσετον
Third Person Dualλύσετον
First Person Pluralλύσομενwe shall loose
Second Person Pluralλύσετεyou will loose
Third Person Pluralλύσουσιthey will loose
First Aorist Active Indicative of λύω
First Person SingularἕλῡσαI loosed
Second Person Singularἔλῡσαςyou loosed
Third Person Singularἔλῡσεhe loosed
Second Person Dualἐλύσατον
Third Person Dualἐλῡσάτην
First Person Pluralἐλύσαμενwe loosed
Second Person Pluralἐλύσατεyou loosed
Third Person Pluralἔλῡσανthey loosed
Future Active Indicative of πέμπω
First Person Singularπέμψω
Second Person Singularπέμψεις
Third Person Singularπέμψει
Second Person Dualπέμψετον
Third Person Dualπέμψετον
First Person Pluralπέμψομεν
Second Person Pluralπέμψετε
Third Person Pluralπέμψουσι
First Aorist Active Indicative of πέμπω
First Person Singularἔπεμψα
Second Person Singularἔπεμψας
Third Person Singularἔπεμψε
Second Person Dualἐπέμψατον
Third Person Dualἐπεμψάτην
First Person Pluralἐπέμψαμεν
Second Person Pluralἐπέμψατε
Third Person Pluralἔπεμψαν

Formation of the Future Indicative and First Aorist Indicative

88. The future adds σω to the verb stem (54), the first aorist adds σα. The aorist, as a secondary tense, has augment (66, 67).

89. If the verb stem ends in a vowel, the stem may not be affected by the the addition of σω and σα, as λύ-ω, λύ-σω, ἔλῡ-σα; βουλλεύ-ω, βουλεύ-σω, ἐβούλευ-σα.

90. If the verb stem ends in a mute (7), euphonic changes occur:

1. A π-mute (π β φ) unites with σ and forms ψ (9), as πέμπ-ω, πέμψω (πεμπ-σω), ἔπεμψα (ἐπεμπ-σα).

2. Α κ-mute ( κ γ χ) unites with σ and forms ξ (9), as διώκ-ω, pursu, διώξω (διωκ-σω), ἐδίωξα (ἐδιωκ-σα).

3. A τ-mute (τ δ θ) before σ is dropped, as ἁρπάζω (verb stem ἁρπαδ), ἁρπάσω (ἁρπαδ-σω), ἥρπασα (ἡρπαδ-σα).

The Second Aorist

91. Some verbs lack the first aorist. Such verbs often have a SECOND aorist, which ends in ον, and is conjugated exactly like the imperfect (69), as:

ἄγω, ἔξω, second aorist ἤγαγον, I led, ἤγαγες, you led, ἤγαγε, he led, etc.,

ἕχω, ἕξω, second aorist ἔσχον, Ι had, ἔσχες, you had,ἔσχε, he had, etc.

a The breathing of the future ἕξω is irregular.

The second aorist can be distinguished from the imperfect by the form of the stem. The imperfect is formed from the present stem (i.e. ἄγω), the aorist is formed from the aorist stem (i.e. ἤγαγον). From this point forward, the present, future and aorist forms of verbs will be given in the vocabulary and must be learned as part of the word.

The Present Infinitive Active

92. The present infinitive active ends in ειν, as λύειν, to loose, πέμπειν, to send, etc.

Compound Verbs

93. Compound verbs consist of a preposition and a simple verb. If the preposition ends in a vowel and the simple verb begins with one, the vowel of the preposition is generally elided (16). Compound verbs take the augment between the Preposition and the simple verb. It two vowels are thus brought together, the first is generally elided, as ἐπι-βουλεύω, plot against, imperfect ἐπ-εβούλευον.

94. VOCABULARY.

ἀθροίζω (verb stem ἀθροιδ) ἀθροίσω, ἤθροισαcollect, gather together, muster.
διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξαpursue.
ἐπι-βουλεύω, ἐπι-βουλεύσω, ἐπ-εβούλευσαplot against.
κελεύω, κλεύσω, ἐκέλευσαcommand.
ἀδελφός, οῦ, ὁbrother.
βάρβαρος, ου, ὀbarbarian.
μισθός, οῦ ὁpay.
πολέμιος, ᾱ, ον (cf. πόλεμος)hostile.
οἱ πολέμιοιthe enemy.
τότεadv., then, at that time.

95. READ ALOUD AND TRANSLATE:

1. ἔξουσι.
2. ἤθροισαν.
3. πέψετε.
4. ἐκέλευσας.
5. ἐπιβουλεύσομεν.
6. ἐδιώξατε.
7. ἠγάγομεν.
8. ἄξετε
9. ἔσχες.
10. ἡρπάσαμεν.
11. oὐ διώξω τοὺς πολεμίους.
12. τὰ δῶρα ἐπέμψαμεν;
13. τὰς σκηνὰς ἁρπάσουσιν οἱ βάρβαροι.
14. κελεύσει τὸν στρατηγὸν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους λύειν.
15. τοὺς συμμάχους ἤγαγεν εἰς (among) τοὺς βαρβάρυς.
16. Κῦρος ἐπιβουλεύσει τῷ ἀδλφῷ1
17. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τότε ἔπεμψε Κῦρος μισθόν.
18. ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς τὴν φυλακὴν ἔσχε τὴν Ἑλληνικήν.2
19. εἰς τὸ πεδίον ἁθροισει τοὺς (his) Ἑλληνικοὺς συμμάχους.
20. καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν γέφῡραν τὸν στρατηγὸν πέμπειν ἐκέλευσε Κῦρος φυλακήν.

NOTES.—
1 The dative follows the compound verb. See the Rule in 865. Note also that the article is here used, as often, instead of the possessive pronoun, his brother.—
2 We might have τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν or φυλακὴν τὴν Ἑλληνικήν. See the Rulle in 812.

REVIEW AND PRACTICE:

A Digital Tutorial For Ancient Greek Based on John William White's First Greek Book.
A Work In Progress: Expect things to change and know that you will find errors as you use this tutorial.
Copyright 2012-2014 - Jeff Rydberg-Cox
Please see the acknowledgments page for a list of the on-line resources that have contributed to this project.
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